7th Period - First Dynasty of Portugal - House of Burgundy
(12th Century to 14th Century)

12th C. --
1129 Dom Afonso Henriques is declared the Prince of Portugal
1130 Dom Afonso Henriques invades Galicia - to do battle with his mother but she dies first
1130 Don Alfonso VII of Castile also becomes King of León
1130 The Knights "Hospitalier" establish a base in Portugal
1131 The construction of the Monastery of Santa Cruz is commenced
1131 The capital of Portugal is moved from Guimarães to Coimbra
1132 Second invasion into Galicia by Dom Afonso Henriques
1134 Dom Afonso I attempts for the third time to conquer Galicia and builds a castle at Celmes
1135 Construction of the castle at Leiria by Dom Afonso Henriques
1135 Don Alfonso VII of Castile proclaims himself as "Emperor of all Spains"
1136 Battle of Cerneja - Dom Afonso I defeats the army of Galicia
1137 Battle of Cerneja - Dom Afonso Henriques invades Galicia for the fourth time and wins in battle a victory over the local Galician lords
1137 June - Treaty of Tui - Dom Afonso Henriques acknowledges his allegiance to Don Alfonso VII of Castile and León and trades northern land for Tomar and Leiria
1137 Moors attack Leiria and Dom Afonso Henriques fails to conquer Lisbon from Moors
1138 The Moors capture the castle of Leiria
1138 Dom João Peculiar is nominated Bishop of Braga
1138 The Moors are driven out of Leiria
1139 Birth of Dom Fernando Afonso- illegitimate son of Dom Afonso Henriques by Dona Flâmula Gomes of the powerful Galicia family, Peres de Trava
1139 25th July - Battle of Ourique - Dom Afonso Henriques defeats on the Almoravids army led by Ali ibn Yusuf and four other Emirs with their armies from Badajoz, Beja, Évora, Santarém and Seville - Dom Henriques Afonso declares himself King of Portugal and its independence from the Kingdom of León and Castile
1139 1st November - Dom Afonso Henriques (Afonso I), crowned King of Portugal in Bragança (1139 - 1185) - Reign of House of Burgundy
1140 Birth of Dom Fernando Afonso- illegitimate son of Dom Afonso Henriques by Dona Flâmula Gomes
1140 The Knights "Hospitalier" receive lands and privileges from Dom Afonso Henriques
1140 Battle of Penaguda - Dom Afonso I invades Galicia and attacks castle at Torranho
1140 Building is commenced of Cathedral in Coimbra
1141 25th March - Tournament and Armistice of Arcos de Valdevez - Dom Afonso Henriques takes possession of southern Galicia which causes Don Alfonso VII to invade Portugal. After a joust between the Knights the Portuguese win and are granted part of southern Galicia known as Toronho
1141 Moors retake castle at Leiria
1142 Dom Afonso I forces are kept occupied defending against the Moors the line along the River Tejo and down to Lisbon
1143 4th October - Treaty of Zamora - Don Alfonso VII of Castile and León recognises the Kingdom of Portugal and both Kings agree to a peace and settle land claims between the two kingdoms
1143 Afonso I declares his allegiance with a payment of money to Pope Innocent II and places his kingdom under the protection of Saint Peter and the Holy See
1144 The Muridun (Disciples) led by Abul-Qasim Ahmad ibn al-Husayn al-Quasi rebel in the Algarve against power of Seville - Ibn al-Mundhir takes Silves with the support of the Governor of Beja, Sidray ibn Wazir. Ibn al-Mubndhir and Sidray ibn Wazir take Monchique castle - and with only a further 20 men they take by surprise the castle of Mértola - the Taifas of Mértola and Silves return to independence from Seville
1144 The Order of Cistercians is installed at Tarouca
1145 Dom Afonso retakes Leiria
1145 Taifa of Badajoz becomes independent and conquers the Taifa of Mértola - the new General of Mértola establishes an accord of friendship with Afonso I
1146 Egas Moniz dies - Warrior of great esteem and the right-hand man to Dom Alfonso I
1146 Taifa of Mértola in the Alentejo regains its independence from Taifa of Badajoz
1146 Marriage of Dom Afonso I with Dona Mafalda of Savoy
1146 New Berber Dynasty of the Almohades conquers north Africa and invades Iberian Peninsular
1146 The Almohades commence to settle in al-Gharbh al-Andulus (Algarve)
1147 Birth of Dom Henrique Afonso by Dona Mafalda (1147-1155)
1147 March - Dom Afonso Henriques captures Óbidos, Santarém, Tomar and Torres Novas from Moors - fails to march on Lisbon
1147 June - Crusader Fleet on route to the Holy Land arrives in Porto and are convinced by Bishop of Porto to sail onto Lisbon to assist Dom Afonso I to besiege this city
1147 October - The Crusaders (English, Normans, Flemish and German)besieging Lisbon revolt against each other for three days causing problems for Dom Afonso I
1147 25th October - Capture of town of Lisbon - Gilbert appointed Bishop of Lisbon and also taken from Moors are castles of Almada, Palmela and Sintra
1147 Dom Afonso I orders construction of Church and Monastery of São Vicente de Fora
1148 Birth of Dona Urrcca Afonso by Dona Mafalda (1148-1164)
1150 Taifa's of Badajoz, Beja and Évora are taken by Almohades army
1151 Birth of Dona Teresa by Dona Mafalda (1151-1216)
1151 Dom Afonso I fails in his attempt with help from passing English Crusaders to take Alcácer do Sal from the Moors
1151 Taifa of Mértola in the Alentejo is taken by Almohades
1153 Birth of Dona Mafalda by Dona Mafalda (1153-1164)
1153 Dom Afonso I fails again in his attempt to take Alcácer do Sal from Moors - this time with help from passing Flemish Crusaders
1153 Construction begins on Cistercian Monastery of Alcobaça (1178-1223)
1154 11th November - Birth of Dom Martinho (later changed to Sancho), who was to become Sancho (I), by Dona Mafalda (1154-1211)
1155 Taifa of Silves taken by Almohades
1155 Death of Infante Dom Henrique Afonso
1156 Birth of Dom João by Dona Mafalda (1157-1163)
1157 Death of Dom Alfonso VII of Castle, León and Galicia
1157 Failed attempt to take the castle of Alcácer do Sal from the Moors
1157 Birth of Dona Sancha by Dona Mafalda (1157-1167) - which causes the death of Queen Dona Mafalda
1158 Dom Alfonso I succeeds in taking Alcácer do Sal
1158 Death of Dona Mafalda of Savoy in Coimbra
1159 24th June - Dom Afonso I takes from Moors the town of Alcácer do Sal after two months of besiegement without any foreign forces to assist - he continues southwards taking Beja, Évora, Juromenha, Moura and Serpa
1158 Marriage of Dom Sancho to Dona Dulce of Aragon
1158 Spanish Military Orders of Calatrava, Santiago and Alcántara are founded (1158-1170)
1158 28th May - Sahagán Pact - Sons of Don Alfonso VII of Castile, Don Sancho III of Castile and Don Fernando II of León, agree to divide Portugal between them if successfully conquered
1159 Dom Afonso I sends army to do battle with Don Fernando II of León
1159 The Castle of Cera (Tomar) is donated to Knights Templar
1160 January - Dom Afonso I agrees to the marriage of Dona Urraca (eldest daughter of Afonso I), with Don Alfonso (II) of Aragon (cousins)
1160 Marriage of Dona Mafalda (daughter of Dom Afonso I), with Raimundo de Berenguer, the son of the Count of Barcelona
1160 Dom Afonso I and Fernando II of León agree to take joint action against Castile
1160 Dom Afonso I takes possession of Trancoso
1161 The Moroccan Emir Abdul-Mumen lands at Gibraltar with a large army and marches into Portugal taking Alcácer do Sal, Beja, Évora and Palmela having defeated Dom Afonso I in battle
1162 Construction begins of headquarters of Knights Templars in Tomar
1162 Dom Afonso I and his General Geraldo Geraldes (The Fearless), mount a counter campaign over 5 years and capture Trujillo, Cáceres, and Montandez in Spain, and Arranches, Alvito, Barrancos, Crato, Elvas, Juromenha, Monsaraz, Marvão, Moura, Mourão, Serpa and Juromenha in the Alentejo
1162 Fernão Gonçalves retakes Beja in the Alentejo
1163 Almohad Caliph Abd al-Mumin al-Kumi dies and is succeeded by Abu Yagub Yusuf I
1163 Dom Afonso I invades Kingdom of León until the town of Salamanca
1165 Geraldo (The Fearless) takes Évora in the Alentejo
1165 Treaty of Lérez - Marriage of Dom Afonso I's daughter Dona Urraca with Don Ferdinand II of León
1166 Army of Dom Afonso I captures Serpa and Moura in the Alentejo
1167 Army of Dom Afonso I captures Monsaraz in the Alentejo
1167 Dom Afonso invades Galicia and takes town of Tui but returns quickly to Portugal to prepare for battle against Moors - Tui remains in Portuguese hands until 1169
1168 Geraldo Geraldes (The Fearless) leads army to besiege Moors in Badajoz in Spain - it eventually taken by Geraldo Geraldes in 1169
1169 Dom Afonso Henriques is badly wounded in battle and captured at Badajoz by forces of Don Fernando II of León who attack from behind - Don Fernando II prefers the support of Dom Afonso I in driving the Moors out of the Peninsular so in return for his release Dom Afonso I trades his conquests in Galicia and several castles captured in the Alentejo, plus Badajoz - Geraldo Geraldes seeks temporary safety in Juromenha
1169 Dom Afonso I appoints his eldest son Dom Fernando Afonso (illegitimate), as his Commander-in-Chief of his army (1169-1172)
1169 Dom Afonso I to secure support from the Knights Templar grants to them one third of all they conquer from the Moors in the Alentejo
1170 15th August - Dom Afonso I makes his son Dom Sancho (I) a Knight in the cathedral in Coimbra and by this act indicated to his court who he wishes to succeed him to the throne of Portugal
1170 Almohades make Seville their capital
1171 The Pope agrees to the annulment of the marriage of Dona Urraca with Don Fernando II
1171 The Almohades attack Santarém
1172 Dom Fernando Afonso is removed from his command and leaves for Castile - eventually appointed the Grand Master of the Order of Hospitalier of São João (later to be renamed as Order of Malta)
1172 The "Order de Santiago da Espada" is introduced into Portugal
1172 August - The Portuguese take Beja in a surprise attack but it is abandoned soon afterwards to the Moors
1172 Year of severe famine throughout Portugal
1172 Almohades capture Seville replacing the now decadent Almoravids
1173 Supposed remains of Saint Vincent moved from Sagres to Lisbon by sea to be placed in the São Vincent de Fora Monastery
1174 Marriage of Dom Sancho (I) to Dona Dulce de Aragon, daughter of Count of Barcelona
1174 Dom Afonso I enters into a 5-year Peace Pact with the Emir of Morocco
1174 Kingdom of Aragon recognise the independence of Portugal
1174 Army of Dom Fernando II of León temporary invades Portugal
1175 Almohades recapture town of Beja in the Alentejo
1175 Death of Dom João Peculiar, Bishop of Beja and a very trusted confidant of Dom Afonso I
1176 Geraldo Geraldes (The Fearless) moves to Seville - he is executed by the Moors in Morocco for being as a Portuguese spy
1177 Marriage of Dona Teresa (daughter of Afonso I), and Count Filipe of Alsace (Count of Flounders)
1178 Dom Sancho as a Prince leads successful Portuguese army incursion into Andalusia but fails to capture Seville
1178 Naval victory is achieved by Dom Fuas Roupinho over Moor fleet
1179 23rd May - Dom Afonso I recognised by Pope Alexander III as the King of the Independent State of Portugal - this provides temporary safety from attack from Castile or León
1179 Don Ferdinand II of León repudiates his wife Dona Urraca (daughter of Don Afonso I)
1179 Moors recapture Abrantes
1180 15th July - Almohades fleet defeated by Portuguese fleet off the Cabo Espichel
1180 Moors recapture Castle of Coruche
1180 Battle of Arganil - Dom Sancho (I) fails in his attempt to acquire by force the area know as Ribacoa in the north-east as part of Portugal
1181 Moors besiege Santarém but fail in their attempt
1182 Portuguese fleet fail in their raid on Ceuta on the northern coast of Africa
1184 Marriage of Dona Teresa (Afonso I favourite daughter), with Count Filipe of Flanders
1184 June - Portuguese army led by Dom Sancho (I) defeats large army of Almohades as they try to besiege Santarém and Yusuf I is killed during the battle
1184 Yusuf I is succeeded by Abu Yusuf al-Mansur
1185 Dom Afonso I dies in Coimbra
1185 6th December - Dom Sancho I (1185 - 1211)
1185 Dom Sancho I commences a plan of populating Portugal by importing Flemings and Burgundians
1185 Initial victories in the Alentejo and the Algarve by Dom Sancho I reversed by Abu Yusuf Al-Mansur from Seville
1185 Birth of Dom Afonso (II) in Coimbra
1189 Army of León invades Celorico da Beira
1189 May - Nordic fleet of Crusaders invade and slaughter 2.500 inhabitants of Alvor in the Algarve
1189 September - Dom Sancho I captures Silves and other main towns in the Algarve from Moors with the assistance of passing Nordic Crusaders
1190 Marriage of Dona Urraca Sanches (daughter of Sancho I), to Fernando II of León - this is annulled through the efforts of Don Alfonso VIII of Castile as the couple were cousins
1190 Moors fail in their attempt to retake Silves but take possession of Alcobaça, Évora, Leiria, Tomar and Torres Novas
1191 June - Moor army recapture main towns in the Algarve and Almada, Alcácer do Sal, Palmela
1191 July - Silves once more is taken by the Moors
1191 Don Alfonso of León marries daughter of Dom Sancho I in Guimarães - this marriage is later not recognised by the Pope
1194 The Kings of León and Castile agree to combine their forces against Portugal
1195 Battle of Alarcos - Don Alfonso VIII of Castile defeated by Almohades at Alarcos, Spain
1196 Don Alfonso II of Aragon attempt to arrange an agreement between Portugal, Castile and Leon with the result that Portugal, Castile and Aragon join forces against León
1196 Combined army from Portugal and Castile occupy Tui and Pontevedra
1197 Don Alfonso VIII of Castile seeks peace with Don Alfonso IX of León
1198 Don Alfonso IX of León invades north-east Portugal and takes some castles
1198 Don Alfonso IX of León encircles Bragança but is forced to retreat by Dom Sancho I
1199 Portugal suffers a period of plaques, famine, and civil unrest as local lords fight each other (1199-1208)
1199 Alvor was captured by passing Crusaders who slew the inhabitants consisting of some 2.500 men, women and children
1199 Silves besiged and taken by Portugues forces with passing Crusaders who then killed all the defending Moors
1199 Sancho I founds the town of Guarda
1199 Abu Yusuf al-Mansur dies and is succeeded by Muhammad al-Nasir
13th C. --
1200 Pope Innocent III arranges peace between Portugal and León
1204 Geraldo Sem-Pavor leads the army of Dom Alfonso 1 and takes the castle at Évora in the Alentejo from the Moors
1207 Dom Sancho I is excommunicated by Pope Innocent III for his independent attitude towards the Church
1208 Hostility commences between the Church led by the Bishop of Porto and Dom Sancho I
1208 Marriage of Dom Afonso (II) with Dona Urraca of Castile, daughter of Don Alfonso VIII of Castile and Eleanor Plantagenet, and sister of Dona Branca wife of Luís VIII of France
1209 Birth of Dom Sancho (II) in Coimbra
1210 Birth of Dom Afonso (III) in Coimbra
1211 Sancho I dies and leaves in his will considerable wealth to be divided between his family, church and the poor people
1211 27th March - Afonso II (1211 - 1223)
1211 Introduction of new laws in favour of the Church and nobles and discriminating against Moors and Jews
1211 First "Cortes" (form of Parliament composed of nobles and clerics) authorised by the King are held in Coimbra
1211 Dom Afonso II encirlces Montemor-o-Velho
1211 Dom Afonso II grants the town of Avis to its Order
1212 Royal troops sack Montemor-o-Velho and Alenquer as examples to curb wave of rebellion being led by the Church and supported by many nobles
1212 Battle of Novas de Tolosa - Afonso II's army give support to his father-in-law Don Afonso VIII of Castile who gains victory over the Moors
1212 Army of León capture the castles of Valença and Melgaco - this army was to remain in Portuguese territory until 1231
1212 November - Treaty of Coimbra - Dom Afonso II, plus Don Fernando II of León and Don Alfonso VIII of Castile agree in their common cause to eradicate the Moors from Iberia
1213 Abu Yusuf II becomes Almohades Caliph of Seville
1216 The Order of Franciscans enter Portugal under the patronage of the sisters of Dom Afonso II
1216 Dona Teresa favourite daughter of Dom Afonso I dies in Flanders
1216 Dom Pedro Sanches (half-brother of the King), in an act of rebellion temporary takes possession of parts of Portugal
1217 Dom Afonso II recaptures Alcácer do Sal, Borba, Monforte, Moura and Vila Viçosa
1219 The Archbishop of Braga flees Portugal after his possessions are seized by royal officers
1220 Dom Afonso II initiates "Inquirições Gerais" - initially laws relating to the confiscation by the Crown of unworked lands (mainly from the Church)
1220 Dom Afonso II in conflict with his half-brother Dom Martim Sanches and Bishop of Braga occupy some of their properties in the north but his troops are made to retreat
1221 Dom Sancho (II) presents Óbidos as a wedding present to his new wife
1221 Don Alfonso IX of León with Dona Teresa of Portugal and Dom Martin Sanches (Don Afonso II's half-brother) occupy Chaves but the town is later retaken by Dom Afonso II
1221 Pope Honório III attempts to intervene between Crown and Church in application of "Inquirições Gerais" and ex-communicates Dom Afonso II
1223 25th March - Dom Sancho II (1223 - 1248)
1223 Dom Sancho II negotiates a form of compromise with his Uncles and the Church but Portugal's nobility remains divided between Church and the Crown
1224 Treaty of Sabugal - Agreement between Dom Sancho II and Don Alfonso II of Castile and León to join together if and when their Kingdoms are threatened
1226 The rift between Church and Crown is partially healed by war against Moors but royal troops still raid and occupy monasteries
1226 Combined armies of Dom Sancho II and Don Alfonso IX capture the towns of Cáceres and Badajoz - Dom Sancho II is nearly killed when attacking Elvas
1226 Dom Sancho II captures Elvas from Moors - then taken back by Moors the following year
1227 Dom Afonso (III) son of Afonso II is sent to France and through marriage becomes Count of Burgundy - also to return later and become King of Portugal
1228 At a council held by leaders of the church they call on the Portuguese Barons to stop warring between themselves and attack the Moors
1229 Dom Sancho II recaptures Elvas from Moors
1230 Dom Sancho II meets with Don Fernando III of Castile at Sabugal
1230 Dom Sancho II recaptures Elvas and Juromenha which are abandoned by the Moors
1230 Fighting between Governor of Covilhã and Templar from Castelo Branco
1230 The year marks the collapse of the rule of Almohades of the Al-Andalus region
1231 Dom Sancho II wages war against Abbot of Pombeiro
1231 Dom Sancho II and Don Fernando III meet and confirm their previous agreement to fight together against the Moors
1232 Dom Sancho II captures Beja, Moura and Serpa from Moors
1234 Dom Sancho II retakes Beja from the Moors
1235 Dom Sancho II takes Aljustral from the Moors
1236 Don Fernando III captures Córdoba from the Almohades
1236 Dom Sancho II captures Cacela, Mértola and Tavira from the Moors
1237 The Order of Dominicans enter Portugal under the patronage of the Bishop of Porto
1237 The Nasrid Dynasty is established in Granada
1238 Dom Sancho II retakes Mértola permanently
1238 Dom Sancho II takes Cacela from the Moors
1238 Marriage of Dom Afonso (III) to Dona Matilde of Burgundy
1239 Foundation in Estremoz of the Order of Minor Priests
1239 Dom Sancho II takes Cacela, Tavira and Ayamonte from the Moors
1239 Jerusalem is re-taken from the Christians
1240 Dom Sancho II takes Alvor from the Moors
1240 Dom Sancho II takes Cacela and Ayamonte (Spain)
1240 Marriage of Dom Sancho II with Dona Mécia Lopes
1241 Dom Sancho II takes Alvor
1242 Dom Sancho II takes Paderne and Tavira from the Moors
1243 Portuguese Bishops appeal to Pope Innocent IV to solve the problem of churches being sacked and clergy kidnapped in Portugal
1245 Pope Innocent IV declares Dom Sancho II a heretic and orders his removal in favour of Dom Afonso III - Dom Sancho II is exiled to Toledo
1245 11th June - Dom Afonso III becomes Regent (1245 - 1248)
1245 August - Martin Gil de Soveirosa killed in unsuccessful revolt
1245 Civil War is waged between the supporters of Dom Sancho II and his brother Dom Afonso (III) for the crown of Portugal (1245-1248) - Dom Afonso (III) is strongly supported by the church
1246 Dom Afonso (III) arrives in Lisbon from France to find support from the Knights of the Order of Santiago awaiting
1246 Church takes as a hostage Dona Mécia Lopes de Haro and holds her prisoner at Ourém
1247 Castilian army take Coimbra in support of Dom Afonso (III)
1248 Dom Sancho II flees and dies in Toledo in exile
1248 3rd January - Dom Afonso III (1248 - 1279)
1248 Don Fernando III of Castile takes possession of Seville
1249 Army of Dom Afonso III led by Dom Paio Correia (Master of Order of Santiago), takes for the final time the towns of Faro (March), Albufeira (May), Porches (April),  and Silves in the Algarve, and adopts the title of "King of Portugal and all Algarve" but his claim is challenged by Castile
1250 Moor general ibn Mahfad seizes Faro in the name of Don Ferdinand III of Castile
1251 Dom Afonso III gives the town of Albufeira to the Order of Avis
1251 Dom Afonso III takes Arouches and Aracena from the Moors and invades Andalusia
1252 November - Meeting in Badajoz making initial agreement between Dom Afonso III and Don Fernando III of Castile about the limits between the two countries - also, Dona Beatriz was to be given the Algarve as a wedding present upon her marriage to Dom Afonso III
1252 Dom Fernando III of Castile dies and is succeeded by Don Alfonso X  - he prepares his army to attack the Algarve to add to his Kingdom
1253 May - Conference of Chaves - making further clauses between Dom Afonso III and Don Alfonso X about the limits between the two countries
1253 Dom Alfonso III introduces the "Lei do Tabelamento" - law controlling the price if basic commodities
1253 Dom Alfonso III introduces the "Lei do Almoçataria" - law controlling the export of basic commodities and minerals
1253 Marriage contract between Dom Afonso III with Dona Beatriz of Castile (illegitimate daughter of new Castilian King, Alfonso X) - the Pope excommunicates Dom Afonso III as his first wife Dona Matilde was still living (after her death, this marriage was later recognised in 1262) - the Pope in 1258 orders that the child Dona Beatriz is separated from Don Afonso III
1254 "Cortes" held at Leiria include for the first time representatives of towns
1255 Famine sweeps Portugal mainly due to failure of crops
1255 Vila Novo de Gaia is established as a town to regulate Porto shipping trade which prior to this was in the hands of the Bishop of Porto
1255 Capital of Portugal moves from Coimbra to Lisbon
1257 January - Don Afonso III assembles his Barons to invoke new laws to stop them fighting each other
1258 Dom Afonso III reintroduces the laws "Inquirições Gerais" to control the abuse of peasants by knights, landed gentry and clerics
1261 Birth of Dom Dinis in Santarém
1261 "Cortes" of Coimbra where income tax was imposed on all with the exception of clerics, monks and knights
1262 Famine sweeps Portugal mainly due to failure of crops
1264 5th June - Don Alfonso X agreed to relinquished his claim on the Algarve
1265 Dom Afonso III confiscated land from the Church under the system of "Inquirições Gerais"
1267 Treaty of Badajoz - Portugal's claim on the Algarve recognised by Castile and borders between the two countries settled in return for towns of Aronches and Aracena which are granted to Castile
1268 Hostility between Church and Crown forces Bishops of Portugal to flee to Rome for sanctuary from Dom Afonso III
1272 Dom Afonso III captures Faro - last stronghold of Moors in Portugal
1272 Introduction into Portugal of Knights of the Order of Santiago of the Sword
1273 Dom Afonso III attempts to improve relations with the Church and created a Commission of Enquiry
1276 John XXI becomes the first and to this date the only Portuguese Pope (1276-1277)
1277 As a result of a Bull published by Rome the people revolt in Gouveia, Pinhel and Santarém
1278 Dom Afonso III passes the control of Portugal over to his son Dom Dinis
1279 16th February - Dinis (1279 - 1325)
1281 Dom Dinis wages war in the Alentejo against his brother Dom Afonso
1282 Marriage of Dom Dinis to Dona Isabel of Aragon in Trancoso
1285 "Cortes" are held in Lisbon to introduce new laws forbidding the Church to acquire new property and forcing them to sell any property acquired during his reign
1286 Dom Dinis supported by Don Sancho IV of Castile besieges his brother Dom Afonso at Arronches - battle is avoided by intervention of Dona Beatriz and Dona Isabel of Portugal and Dona Maria de Castile
1287 Dom Dinis and Don Sancho IV of León and Castile meet in Sabugal to discuss action on rebel nobles within each of their courts. Also, discussion commences of inter-marriage of the offspring of the two royal families
1288 The Order of Santiago make the castle of Palmela their headquarters
1288 Dom Afonso (IV) the son of Dom Dinis, rebels and makes a claim to the throne of Portugal from his castle at Arronches - peace is restored later by negotiations made by his mother, Dona Isabel
1289 The hostility between the Church and Crown is finally settled
1290 Birth of Dom Afonso (IV) in Lisbon
1290 First Portuguese form of University founded in Lisbon by Dom Dinis
1291 Dom Dinis and Don Sancho IV of Castile meet in Ciudad Rodrigo to agree on action on Moors and their rebel nobles
1293 Due to Don Sancho IV's new agreement with France he changes his plans and starts to have designs on conquering Portugal and the Algarve
1295 Dom Dinis declares war with Castile and involving the castles of Arronches, Marvão and Portalegre
1295 Don Sancho IV of León and Castile occupies Guarda and Pinhel so Dom Dinis occupies Alfaiates, Almeida, Castelo Branco, Castelo Melhor, Castelo Monforte, Rodrigo, Sabugal and Vila Maior
1296 Dom Dinis leads an army into Castile to Valladolid and takes lands around Ribacoa and Simancas
1296 Portuguese fleet engage with Castile fleet near coastal town of Sines
1297 Treaty of Alcañices - Castile recognizes Portugal's sovereignty over the Algarve and defines the borders between the two countries - Portugal held Campo Maior, Lorenço and Ouguela, whilst Castile held Aracena, Arouches, Ferreira, Esporragal, Ferreira and Valencia de Alcántara
1299 Dom Dinis besieges his brother Dom Afonso at Portalegre and again battle is avoided by the three royal ladies as in 1286 at Arronches
14th C. --
1300 March - Dom Dinis meets with Don Ferdinand of Castile to renew the previous inter-marriage proposal of the two royal families to bring peace
1302 Famine sweeps Portugal mainly due to failure of crops
1304 Marriage of Dona Constança (daughter of Dom Dinis), to Dom Fernando IV of Castile which brings about better relationship between the two countries
1304 Treaty of Torrellas - Dom Dinis acted as arbitrator in the conflicts between Castile and Aragon
1307 Nuno Fernandes Coutinho as the first Portuguese Admiral
1308 First Commercial Treaty of Trade between Portugal and England
1308 Introduction of State Navy to control trade with England
1308 Lisbon University moved to Coimbra
1309 Marriage of Dom Afonso (IV) to Dona Beatriz of Castile
1312 Dissolution of Order of Knights Templar
1315 Request made to Pope John XXII to create the religious and military Order of Christ
1317 State Navy becomes a Military Navy
1319 Tomar, Castro Marim, and other castles, as possessions of Knights of Order of Christ
1319 Civil War erupts between the future Dom Afonso (Dom Afonso IV) and his father Dom Dinis
1320 Birth of Dom Pedro (I) in Coimbra
1320 Dom Afonso (IV) orders the murder of the Bishop of Estremoz who is a leading supporter of the King, Dom Dinis
1322 Peace is declared with the persuasion of Dona Isabel wife of Dom Dinis and the mother of Dom Afonso (IV) - Dom Afonso is granted castles of Coimbra, Feira, Gaia, Montemor-o-Velho and Porto
1323 Dom Afonso (IV) marches from Santarém on Lisbon to do battle with his father Dom Dinis - Dona Isabel wife of Dom Dinis settles the dispute
1325 7th January - Dom Afonso IV (1325 - 1357)
1325 At "Cortes" held in Évora Dom Afonso IV demands loyalty from his subjects as a result of his family war and sends Dom Afonso (illegitimate son of Dom Dinis), to exile in Spain
1325 Dom Afonso Sancho returns with Spanish army and captures Bragança. His son enters Portugal via the Alentejo and defeats Portuguese army at Ouguela
1326 November - Treaty of Toro - Talks between Portuguese and Castile ambassadors of renewal of combined war against Moors. At the same meeting Don Alfonso XI has his main noble Castilian opponent murdered to secure his throne
1328 Although being direct cousins, Dom Pedro (I) is promised in marriage to Dona Branca of Castile. This is later annulled in 1336
1333 Famine sweeps Portugal mainly due to failure of crops
1336 Dom Afonso after repeated invasions of Portugal makes peace with his brother Dom Afonso and is reinstated in court with the support of Dona Isabel of Aragon
1336 Marriage by proxy of Dom Pedro (I) to Dona Constança Manuel of Galicia (she being his cousin) - his future true love, Inês de Castro is member of her cortège when she arrives in Portugal four years afterwards
1336 Death of Fearless Dona Isabel of Aragon, wife of Dom Dinis in Estremoz
1336 Dom Afonso IV declares war (1336-1338) on Don Alfonso XI of Castile (his son-in-law), in support of his daughter Dona Maria as Don Alfonso XI had openly taken Leonor da Gusmán as his lover and treats her as his actual queen
1336 Dom Afonso IV commences siege of Badajoz and Dom Pedro of Barcelos makes an unsuccessful invasion of Galicia by sea - in both counts he suffers serious defeats
1337 Commencement of the "100 Year War" in Europe (1337-1453)
1339 Moor army led by Abd al-Malique invades Andalucía from North Africa in a failed attempt to retake Iberian Peninsular
1340 16th April - Combined Christian fleet destroyed by Moor's fleet under the command of Abu Halacane
1340 Don Alfonso XI of Castile and Leonor da Gusmán separate
1340 Dom Afonso IV and Don Afonso XI of Castile meet in Seville and agree to combine armies to fight the Moors
1340 30th October - Battle of Salado - Portugal and Castile make peace and join their armies in North Africa and defeat the Moors in battle
1341 Portugal discover the Canary Islands
1344 Famine sweeps Portugal mainly due to failure of crops (1344-1346)
1345 31st October - Birth of Dom Fernando (I) in Coimbra
1345 Dom Afonso IV appeals to Pope Clement VI for possession of the Canary Islands - this claim is opposed by Castile and was finally resolved later in 1480
1348 Black Death kills a third of the Portuguese population (1348-1349)
1349 Introduction of compulsory rural labour due to famine caused by Black Death Plaque
1350 Birth of Dona Leonor Teles future wife of Dom Fernando I (1350?-1386)
1353 Dom Pedro claimed to have secretly married Inês de Castro - not accepted by the "Cortes"
1354 Lisbon University transferred back to Lisbon
1355 7th January - Murder of Dona Inês de Castro (lover of Dom Pedro I), by order of the Dom Afonso IV his father as he considered Dona Inês a threat to the line of succession to the Portuguese throne
1355 Peace Treaty of Canavases - an agreement is reached after great hostility between Dom Pedro and his father Dom Afonso IV, this being caused by the assassination of Dona Inês de Castro - her family led an army from Galicia into the north of Portugal and then retired
1357 Birth of Dom João (I) in Lisbon
1358 28th May - Pedro I (1358 - 1367) - Inês is removed from her grave and her mummified body is also publicly crowned as Queen
1360 Birth of Portugal's greatest soldier, Nuno Álvares Pereira (1360-1431) at Sertã
1361 "Cortes" held at Elvas confirm an improvement and alterations in laws by Dom Pedro I to defend his less privileged subjects
1361 Plaque sweep most of Portugal causing many deaths (1361/1364)
1363 Dom João (I) is granted the title of Master of House of Avis - (illegitimate son of Dom Pedro I and Dona Teresa Lourenço)
1363 The alliance between Dom Pedro I of Portugal and Don Pedro I of Castile was so good that Portuguese troops were part of Castle's army in their fight against Aragon and Valencia
1369 "Cortes" in Lisbon censure Dom Pedro I for violating law "Leis de Desamortização" - the non-payment of supplies
1367 19th January - Dom Fernando I (1367 - 1383) - Last of the House of Burgundy
1369 First of three wars with Don Henrique II of Castile by Dom Fernando I as the later claimed an heritage right to the throne of Castile as great- grandson of Sancho IV of Castile - Dom Fernando I is acclaimed by the towns of Ciudad Rodrigo, Tui and Zamora (1369-1370)
1369 Portuguese forces invade Galicia and Spanish forces invade and take Bragança, Braga and Outeiro de Miranda
1370 Portuguese fleet blockade entrance to the River Guadaliquivir cutting sea access to Seville and troops take possession of Ciudad Rodrigo
1370 Creation of National Company of Vessels
1371 Plaque sweep most of Portugal causing many deaths (1371/1374)
1271 John of Gaunt (Duke of Lancaster) marries Dona Constança the daughter of Dom Pedro and assumes title of King of Castile
1371 22nd March - Treaty of Alcoutim - Dom Fernando I following his defeat by Don Henrique II of Castile agrees to marry Dona Leonor of Castile (Dom Fernando I ignores this commitment)
1371 Birth of Dom Afonso illegitimate son of Dom Fernando I and Dona Inês Pires at Bom Jardim outside Lisbon - he was to later to be granted the title of 1st Duque de Bragança (1371?-1461)
1372 Riots caused by unpopular marriage of Dom Fernando I to Dona Leonor Teles (her mother being the illegitimate daughter of Dom Sancho I) - she being married and divorced previously in the same year to João Lourenço da Cunha - many aristocrats fled to support exiled Dom João de Castro in Castile (son of Dom Pedro ! and Dona Inês de Castro)
1372 Don Juan of Castile lays a claim to the throne of Portugal upon the future death of Dom Fernando I should he leave no direct heirs to the throne
1372 23rd February - Don Henrique II blockades the City of Lisbon
1372 10th July - Treaty of Tagilde - John of Gaunt (Duke of Lancaster, England) makes a claim to the throne of Castile being married to Dona Constanza (daughter of Dom Pedro I of Castile and León), and makes an accord with Dom Fernando I of Portugal against Spain and France
1372 September - Don Henrique II invades Portugal starting the War against Portugal, and takes Almeida, Celorico, Guimarães, Linares, Porto and Viseu (1372-1373)
1373 19th March - Peace Treaty of Santarém - Peace agreed between Portugal and Castile and Dona Beatriz and Dona Isabel, daughters of Dom Fernando I are promised in marriage to Don Alfonso and Don Fadrique the illegitimate sons of Henrique II of Castile - Dom Fernando I agrees to defend together with France in the claims of Don Henrique to the throne of Castile
1373 16th June - The Anglo-Portuguese Trade Alliance signed in London
1373 Due to an increase in taxation, this year marked the beginning of a ten year period that caused the monarchy to end up losing control of its kingdom - in Lisbon he ruled that inhabitants must themselves physically build a wall around the city without receiving any payment
1375 "Lei das Sesmarias" - law created to ensure that all agricultural land was worked
1376 "Cortes" held in Leiria support marriage of Dona Beatriz of Portugal with Don Fradique the son of King of Castile
1377 University moved from Coimbra back to Lisbon
1379 The death of Don Henrique II of Castile restarts hostilities between Castile and Portugal and sacks and burns the town of Braga
1380 Treaty of Estremoz - Dona Beatriz of Portugal is promised in marriage to Edmond of Langley, nephew to the Duke of Lancaster (John of Gaunt of England)
1380 Birth of historian Fernão Lopes (1380-1460)
1381 Plaque sweep most of Portugal causing many deaths (1381/1384)
1381 Third war with Castile commences with the Castile forces under the command of Dom João, son of Dom Pedro I, and a naval blockade of Lisbon is made by a Castile fleet (1381-1382)
1381 6th April - Battle of Atoleiros - Nuno Álvares Pereira leads Portuguese army to victory over smaller Castilian force - a year later he is granted the title of Grand Constable of Portugal
1381 17th July - Battle de Saltes - Portuguese fleet badly beaten by Castile fleet off coast by Huelva in Andalusia
1381 19th June - Arrival in Lisbon of English fleet with 3.000 men commanded by Duke Edmund of Cambridge in support of Dom Fernando I
1381 August - The Portuguese and English army camp at Elvas and prepare for battle - the battle is averted by secret negotiations between Dom Fernando I and Don Juan I of Castile - the English army resent this act and as a result sack many castles and villages in the Alentejo
1382 Portuguese fleet are fitted with cannons
1382 July - Dom Fernando I fearful of the threat to his throne of his brother Dom João has him imprisoned in Évora Castle - he is soon released due to the influence of the Lord Cambridge
1382 July - A Portuguese and Anglo force briefly enters Castile and attacks the small town of Lobón and takes the castle at Cortijo
1382 10th August - Treaty of Elvas - Renewal of Peace Treaty of Santarém and the possibility of annexation of Portugal to Castile due to the promise of marriage of Dona Beatriz of Portugal to his half-brother Don Fernando of Castile
1383 Dona Leonor Teles as Regent (1383 - 1385) - she lives openly with Juan Fernández, Conde de Andeiro, and causing public anger
1383 The Spanish forces invade Portugal and lay siege to Lisbon in support of Dona Leonor Teles but plague forces them to return to Spain
1383 30th April - Treaty of Salvaterra de Magos - Support from Castile to maintain Kingdom of Portugal in return for an alliance against England and now another promise of marriage of Dona Beatriz of Portugal with widower Don Juan I of Castile
1383 10th May - Marriage of Dona Beatriz of Portugal to Don Juan I of Castile in May in Badajoz
1383 Civil war crisis and political anarchy period (1383-1385)
1383 The Conde de Andeiro and Ourém and the lover of Dona Leonor Teles, is murdered in Court by Dom João (I) the Mestre de Avis - There are now three pretenders to the throne of Portugal - Queen Leonor Teles, João (I), Mestre de Avis, and Dom João de Castro in exile
1383 6th December - Civil War breaks out in Lisbon and mobs murder the Bishop of Lisbon who has supported the Castile King for the Portuguese throne - vicious revenge is taken on her supporters of Dona Leonor Teles by the followers of Dom João (I), Mestre de Avis
1383 Dona Leonor Teles flees to Alenquer to avoid mob and then to Santarém
1383 Dom João (I) takes occupation of Lisbon castle - he then sends an Ambassador to England in a failed attempt to obtain their support
1383 Dom João (I), suggests a marriage of convenience with Dona Leonor Teles
1383 December - At the request of Dona Leonor Teles, Don Juan of Castile adds the arms of Portugal to his standard and occupies Guarda
1384 The people of Lisbon create a Revolutionary Government
1384 Dona Leonor Teles abdicated her powers in favour of Don Juan I of Castile which is in direct conflict with the clauses of the Treaty of Salvaterra de Magos (1338)
1384 Don Juan I of Castile occupies Santarém and lays siege to Lisbon - in January 1385 he moves Dona Leonor Teles back to safety in Castile - there is also a rumour that he discovered a plot by Dona Leonor to murder him
1384 8th February - Castile troops occupy outer parts of Lisbon
1384 10th March - Don Juan I of Castile with his main army leave Santarém and lay siege to Lisbon
1384 6th April - Battle of Atoleiros - the Portuguese army loyal to Dom João of Avis and led by Nuno Álvares Pereira heavily defeat the Castile army - Dom Nuno Álvares is later granted the title of "Condestável de Portugal"
1384 May - Lisbon is besieged by land and sea by Castilian forces - Porto sends a small fleet to help Lisbon but is destroyed on August the 27th
1384 Don Juan of Castile retires back to Seville due to shortage of supplies and illness within his army
1385 6th April - "Cortes" held in Coimbra acclaim Dom João, Mestre de Avis, as being the new King of Portugal (the first in the line of the House of Aviz)
1385 Birth of historian Fernão Lopes (1385? - 1460?)
1385 English fleet arrives in Lisbon with volunteer reinforcements
1385 28th May - Battle of Trancoso - Portuguese forces defeat Castile army
1385 August - Dom Juan I of Castile enters Portugal with 30.000 men including many Portuguese sympathisers and captures Coimbra and Leiria
1385 14th August - Battle of Aljubarrota - Dom João with Nuno Álvares Pereira and 16.000 men with support of the English troops heavily defeat the larger Castile army with which are supported also by French troops
1385 October - Battle of Valverde - Nuno Álvares Pereira fights Castile army to the north of Merida in Spanish territory
-- --
6th Period Second County of Portugal (11th Century to 12th Century)
8th Period Second Dynasty of Portugal - Avis (14th Century to 16th Century)
 

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NOTE
The above was compiled by Michael Tannock from published information in the Portuguese language. While every care was taken in obtaining the above facts some conflicting dates, information and spelling were encountered. In such cases, our own discretion was used in choosing which facts to publish.
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